Jewish Newspapers and their archives
Newspapers and their archives are a valuable resource for genealogists. One can derive a wealth of information from the social notices that were common in community newspapers of the past, as well as from detailed obituaries. If you are very lucky there may even be an articles about one of your ancestors!
This page provides links to archives of community and regular newspapers from all over the world. Most are historical. Languages include English, French, German, Hebrew, Ladino, Polish and Yiddish. The page is in three parts: Canadian, American and international papers. The links were provided by Cheryl Rimer, a member, who gave a talk on this subject. New links will be added from time-to-time. Last section update: June 18 2021.
Last updated June 18 2021.
|Edmonton Jewish News||AB||Searchable. Covers 1991-2009. Issues from Dec 2014 to May 2019 are available
|Edmonton Jewish Life||AB||Browsable archive. Published 1992- 2006.|
|Edmonton Jewish Times & Record||AB||Browsable archive. Published 1987-1991.|
|Our Community News (Edmonton)||AB||Our Community News was a non-profit newspaper published and distributed by the Edmonton Jewish Community Council. Sometime between 1967 and 1973, its name was changed to Your Community News. Your Community News ceased publishing in 1980.|
|The Jewish Star (Edmonton edition)||AB||Browsable archive. Published 1980-1990.|
|The Jewish Star (Calgary Edition) ($)||AB||Issues from Dec 1, 1980 to June 1, 1990 - some free pages and clippings; other issues accessible with a newspapers.com subscription.|
|Jewish Western Bulletin||BC||Founded in BC in 1930, became the Jewish Independent in 2005. Archive covers precursor publications and runs from 1925 to 2004. A large portion of the photographic archives of the newspaper dating primarily from 1960 to 1990 are held by the Jewish Museum and Archives of British Columbia. Over 2,000 of these photographs can be viewed online.
|Jewish Independent||BC||Formerly, the Jewish Western Bulletin. Select stories from December 2001 to June 2014 are found here. Items since January 2014 can be searched via the “Archives” dropdown list at the newspaper’s website.|
Western Jewish News
|MB||These papers are stored in the Archives of the Jewish Western Centre of Western Canada. All three newspapers can be searched together at this link. There is some overlap between the Jewish Post on this site and the Jewish Post and News site.|
|Jewish Post and News (Winnipeg)||MB||Founded 1925. Searchable database brings up page images. Numerous issues from August 1987 to December 1996 are on news.google.com here and from January 1991 to December 1991 here (mislabeled as Canadian Jewish Chronicle (Winnipeg)).|
|Canadian Jewish News||ON||Founded in Toronto in 1960 and became Canada's largest Jewish Newspaper. Montreal edition established in 1969. Archive covers 1960-end 1993. Abstract coverage from 1986 to 2013 and full text coverage from 1996 to 2013 is available in the “Canadian Business and Current Affairs Database” online at various libraries, including the Vancouver Public Library. Toronto and Montreal editions of the Canadian Jewish News from January 12, 2017 to March 26, 2020 are available here.
|Canadian Jewish Review||ON||Archive covers 1921-1966. (some years/issues missing). Founded in Toronto in 1921, a Montreal edition commenced in 1929 to become a two-city weekly newspaper. Merged with the Canadian Jewish Chronicle in December 1966 to become the Chronicle Review. Some issues missing from the SFU digitized newspaper database from 1935 to 1939 can be found at here.|
|Der Yiddisher Zhurnal||ON||Der Yiddisher Zhurnal (a.k.a. the Daily Hebrew Journal), 1910-1975, was the primary organ for the Yiddish-speaking population in Toronto. Language is in both Yiddish and some English. The Ontario Jewish Archives has the newspaper on microfiche from 1915-1959. About 148 issues are available online at news.google.com, with most falling within the period from 1957 to 1962. Many issues are joined together under one date rather than indexed separately.|
|Ottawa Jewish Bulletin||ON||Published since 1937. Issues between 2013-2020 can be accessed through the 'Library' link of the website. Ottawa Jewish Bulletin Archive contains issues from 1937-2009. Issues from 2007 to 2019 can be found here.
The newspaper suspended its print issues in April 2020 at the beginning of the coronavirus pandemic, and subsequently announced it would end the 83-year-old newspaper. An online newsletter, “Ottawa Jewish e-Bulletin”, has replaced it.
|Jewish Voice of Hamilton||ON||Yiddish newspaper published in Hamilton, Ontario in the 1930s and 1940s. About 33 issues between May 1934 and September 1938 available on news.google.com. Most of these issues are unindexed and attached to 3 indexed issues.
|Vochenblatt||ON||Yiddish-language communist newspaper published in Toronto from 1926 to 1979. Issues from 1953 to 1963 (some gaps) are available.|
|Canadian Jewish Chronicle||QC||Searchable archive of issues 1914-1967 (except 1950). Some missing issues between 1917-1918 can be found here. Merged with the Canadian Jewish Review in December 1966 to become the Chronicle Review.|
|Chronicle Review||QC||Created by the merger of the Canadian Jewish Review and the Canadian Jewish Chronicle in December 1966. Ceased publication in 1976. Issues after the merger are online at news.google.com for the period from December 1966 to June 1969 (missing some issues) here, and for the period from July 1969 to July 1970 (missing some issues) here.|
|Canadian Jewish Times||QC||The Jewish Times was the first English-language Jewish newspaper published in Canada. It began publication in December 1897 in Montreal, and later became known as The Canadian Jewish Times. The newspaper was bought in 1914 by the owner of the Keneder Adler, who transformed it into the Canadian Jewish Chronicle.
Issues from Oct 1908 to May 1910 (missing some issues) via news.google.com at this link and from May 1910 to April 1914 (missing some issues) at this link.
|The Jewish Record||QC||Published in Montreal, with additional office in Toronto. Several issues from 1937 available here.
|Keneder Adler||QC||Montreal-based daily Yiddish newspaper published 1907-1988. The paper is available on microfiche, but has not been digitized.
The entire text from 6600 obituaries for the period 1908-1935 have been translated and indexed and can either be searched by name or browsed.
The July 8, 1932 Centennial Jubilee Edition of the Keneder Adler (Canadian Eagle) published in English, French, and Yiddish is available on news.google.com at this link. This edition commemorates the centenary of Jewish emancipation in Canada.
|The “Y” Beacon|
The Y.M.H.A. Beacon
|QC||The “Y” Beacon (a.k.a. The Y.M.H.A. Beacon) was the official newspaper of the Montreal Y.M.H.A. (Young Men’s Hebrew Association); Issues available for the periods 1926 – 1942 and 1958 – 1960 here, and for the period 1943 – 1957 here.
The Y.M.H.A. amalgamated with the Y.W.H.A. (Young Women’s Hebrew Association) in 1950. Prior to amalgamation, the Y.W.H.A. had its own news organ; 28 of the issues between 1940 and 1949 are online at Y.W.H.A. News.
A brief history of Jewish press in America is covered in this article from the National Library of Israel. The majority of the links below are to English language newspapers, but the article provides links to the many Yiddish, Hebrew and Ladino newspapers published in the US. Most of our links are to free sites, a few are to subscription sites like newspapers.com. Our listing also contain links to obituary and life-cycle (birth, marriage, death, etc.) databases that have been abstracted from various newspapers. These listings can be isolated by using the ‘Search’ function below. Last updated: June 18 2021.
|The Phoenix Jewish News||AZ||Founded in Phoenix in 1948. Issues from Dec 31, 1948 to Nov 27, 1964 available as part of the Arizona Memory Project. A portion of the newspaper’s photographs are online in The Phoenix Jewish News Photograph Collection.|
|Arizona Jewish Post||AZ||Founded in Tucson in 1946 as the Arizona Post and the word “Jewish” added in later years. The newspaper ceased operations as of March 1, 2021. Issues from 1946 to 1963 online as part of the Arizona Memory Project. Issues from 2016 to 2020 are online here.|
|B'nai B'rith Messenger||CA||A chronicle of Jewish life in Los Angeles. Published 1897-1995. 1898-1977 available online
|Jewish Community Chronicle||CA||Published in Los Angeles, starting 1947. Issues from 2011 to 2019 are available here. Past issues since March 2019 are available here.|
|Jewish Journal||CA||Published in Los Angeles. Use the Search field on the home page to search past issues. Prior print issues since 2017 can be viewed here.|
|The Jewish News of Northern California||CA||Published in San Francisco; 1903 - 2021 (87 issues)|
|The Jewish Outlook||CO||Published in Denver. Issues from August 5, 1904 to June 11, 1909 online in the Colorado Historic Newspapers Collection.|
|The Denver Jewish News|
Intermountain Jewish News
|CO||Founded in Denver in 1913. Issues of The Denver Jewish News are online from October 24, 1918 to December 27, 1922 in the Colorado Historic Newspapers Collection. The newspaper’s name changed to Intermountain Jewish News in 1925.
A searchable obituary database for Intermountain Jewish News, 1918-2011, is contained within the JewishGen USA Database and is described here. A version in pdf format is here.
|Connecticut Jewish Ledger||CT||Founded in 1929. Limited issues between 1935 and 1938 are online in the Connecticut State Library Digital Collections. Use the Search field on the CT Jewish Ledger home page to search past issues. Past issues since 2019 can be viewed here.
The Connecticut Jewish Ledger Obituary Database is contained within the JewishGen USA Database and is described here.
|Heritage Florida Jewish News||FL||Published in Orlando. Available online: 1976-1980 & 2008-2016. Issues during the period 2006 to 2009 are online at news.google.com.|
|The Jewish Floridian||FL||Published in Miami. Available online: Oct 1928 - May 1990
|The Jewish Floridian: community editions.||FL||Community editions of the Jewish Floridian:
Greater Hollywood - 1970-1983; Greater Ft. Lauderdale - 1974-1990; North Broward - 1971-1975; Palm Beach County -1970-1990; Pinellas County - 1980-1986; South Broward - 1984-1987; South County - 1979-1990; Tampa - 1979- 1988
|The Southern Jewish Weekly||FL||Published in Jacksonville, Florida until 1992. Online issues from 1939 to 1956 are here.|
|Southern Israelite||GA||Published in Atlanta. Circulated throughout Georgia and the South. Available online: 1929-1986|
|American Jewess||IL||Published in Chicago 1895-1899. The first English-language periodical targeted to American Jewish women, covering an evocative range of topics that ranged from women's place in the synagogue to whether women should ride bicycles.|
|Chicago Jewish Star||IL||Published from 1991 to 2018. Searchable at newspapers.com by subscription. ($)|
|JUF News||IL||Published by the Jewish United Fund/Jewish Federation of Metropolitan Chicago. Search death notices and obituaries published from 1994 through August 2019 by searching in the JUF Death Notices and Obituaries database. Obituaries published by JUF News 2003 to date are online here.|
|The Jewish Advance||IL||Published in Chicago (1878-??). Online issues from June 14, 1878 to October 14, 1881 are here.|
|The Reform Advocate||IL||Published in Chicago for over 50 years. Available online from 1891 to 1946.|
|The Sentinel||IL||The premier Chicago Jewish weekly, 1911-1996. 1911-1977 online|
|The Jewish Post & Opinion||IN||Collection includes:
The Jewish Post 1933-1946
The National Jewish Post 1946-1957
The National Jewish Post and Opinion 1957-1966
The Indiana Jewish Post and Opinion 1966-2005.
The Jewish Post and Opinion, 1933-2005, is included in the Hoosier State Chronicles. Archived issues of The Jewish Post and Opinion, divided by National and Indiana editions, are online in its Newspaper Archive with links to issues from 2009 to 2013. Indiana editions since 2014 are here. National editions since 2014 are here.
|Chronicler-Spokesman||KY||Published in Louisville. 1930-12-26 - 1933-10-27 was available, but currently offline|
|Spokesman||KY||Successor to the Chronicle-Spokesman. Published Nov 1933 to Dec 1937. Currently offline.|
|Kentucky Jewish Chronicle||KY||Published in Louisville. 1937-1938 was available. Currently offline.|
|Jewish Louisville Community||KY||Published by the Jewish Community Federation of Louisville since 1970s. Search and browse issues from 1970s through 1990s via the Community newspaper digital archive. Access digital copies of Community from 2013-present on the Community newspaper website.|
|The Jewish Ledger||LA||Published in New Orleans from 1895 to 1963. Online issues from 1915 to 1917 available here. The 1945 Golden Jubilee edition is available here.|
|The Jewish Advocate||MA||The Jewish Advocate served the Greater Boston area. It suspended publication after 118 years in 2020. The newspaper reached an agreement with NewsBank to digitize the complete archives of issues from May 26, 1905 through September 25, 2020. There will be a link here when the digital archive is completed.
The JewishGen USA Database contains three searchable databases from The Boston Jewish Advocate. Their descriptions are: Obituaries covers 1905-2020; Wedding Announcements covers 1905-2012; “Seeking Kin” Announcements covers 1916-1990.
|The Jewish Times (Boston)||MA||Alternate titles Boston Jewish Times, The Jewish Weekly Times – published 1945 to 1992.
The Boston Jewish Times Obituary Database is contained within the JewishGen USA Database and is described here.
|The Justice||MA||Student newspaper of Brandeis University. Online: Sept 1949-present|
|The Detroit Jewish News Digital Archives||MI||Search or browse The Detroit Jewish Chronicle (1916-1951) and Detroit Jewish News (1942-2018).|
|The American Jewish World||MN||Weekly published in the Twin Cities of Minneapolis-Saint Paul. Online issues for 1915 to 1976 available here. The AJW Digital Archives has online issues from 1915 to 1990 here. Both collections have gaps but each contains some issues that are missing from the other collection.|
|The Jewish Voice||MO||Weekly newspaper published in St. Louis, Missouri. Issues online from January 6, 1888 to December 31, 1920.|
|Charlotte Jewish News||NC||Jewish News from Charlotte, North Carolina. 1979-2019.|
|The American Jewish Times|
The American Jewish Times Outlook
|NC||The American Jewish Times began publication in 1936. It merged with the Southern Jewish Outlook in 1950 to become The American Jewish Times Outlook, which ran until 2001. Links to online issues from 1937 to 1950 are listed here. Links to online issues from 1950 to 1988 are listed here.|
|The Jewish Press||NE||Published in Omaha, Nebraska. Browse and search over 100 years of The Jewish Press since 1920.|
|Jewish Community News||NJ||Published in Clifton, Passaic county. Search for issues online from 1980-1985 here. Enter “Jewish Community News” as an exact phrase to get issues. Browse issues of the newspaper within “Historical Newspapers United States and Canada login” with a free account here.|
|The Jewish Horizon||NJ||Central New Jersey newspaper; Issues online from 1982 to 1997. Search here or browse here.
|The Jewish Post||NJ||Published in Paterson, Passaic county. Search issues online from 1934 to 1941 here. Enter “Jewish Post” as an exact phrase to get issues. Browse issues of the newspaper within “Historical Newspapers United States and Canada login” with a free account here.|
|The Jewish Standard||NJ||Published in Jersey City. Search issues online from 1931 to 1936 here. Enter “Jewish Standard” as an exact phrase to get issues. Browse issues of the newspaper within “Historical Newspapers United States and Canada login” with a free account here.|
|New Jersey Jewish News||NJ||Founded in 1946 as The Jewish News; Issues online from 1946 to 2016. Search or browse.|
|Las Vegas Israelite||NV||Founded in Las Vegas, Nevada in 1965. Issues online from 1965-1996 (some gaps).|
|The American Hebrew & Jewish Messenger||NY||Published in New York City. The Jewish Messenger (1857-1902) merged with The American Hebrew in 1903 to become The American Hebrew and Jewish Messenger. From April 1922 to 1932 it reverted to the name The American Hebrew.
The Jewish Messenger is available here from 1857-1902. Enter “Jewish Messenger” as an exact phrase to get issues. Issues of The American Hebrew from May to October 1896 are available online here. Issues of The American Hebrew & Jewish Messenger from May 1920 to February 1922 are accessible online here. Issues from February to May 1922 are accessible online here. Issues from May 1923 to May 1925 are accessible online here. Also available online from 1857 to 1922 from select libraries with a subscription to the ProQuest database, American Jewish Newspapers.
|The Asmonean||NY||Published in New York from 1849-1858. First English-language Jewish weekly in the United States. Issues available from 1849 to 1858.|
|Aufbau||NY||A German-Jewish emigre journal: 1934 - 2004 - in German. The Aufbau Survivor Lists database is here. All life-cycle events (birth, marriage, etc.) listed in Aufbau have been indexed: The Aufbau Indexing Project database is here and here.|
|NY||Yiddish newspaper published in New York City since 1897. Online issues from 1897 to 1979 are available here. The Price Library of Judaica Forverts Collection contains several anniversary issues (both New York and Chicago editions) from 1922 to 1967 here.|
|The Hebrew Leader||NY||Published in New York City. Online issues available from 1865 to 1882.|
|The Hebrew Standard||NY||Published in New York City. Online issues available from 1893 to 1922.|
|Jewish Journal||NY||Published in New York, 1890-1906. Not to be confused with the current LA periodical of the same name. Enter "Jewish Journal" as an exact phrase to search for issues. Browse issues of the newspaper within “Historical Newspapers United States and Canada login” with a free account here.|
|JTA (Jewish Telegraphic Agency)||NY||Based in New York City but with international coverage: 1920-present.|
|La Amerika||NY||Ladino newspaper: 1910-1922.|
|The American Israelite||OH||Published in Cincinnati. Longest running English-language Jewish newspaper in the United States. Available online from 1854 to 2000 from select libraries with a subscription to the ProQuest database, American Jewish Newspapers. Issues from 1854 to 1922 only are also searchable at newspapers.com by subscription ($). The 1904 Golden Jubilee edition of The American Israelite is available here.
|Cleveland Jewish News Digital Archives||OH||Search the Cleveland Jewish News (since October 30, 1964}, as well as issues of The Hebrew Observer (1889-1898); The Jewish Independent (1906-1964); The Jewish Review (1895-1899); The Jewish Review and Observer (1899-1958); and The Jewish World (1913-1952).
The Cleveland Jewish News Obituary Database is here.
|Ohio Jewish Chronicle||OH||Newspaper from Columbus, OH. 1922-1994.|
|Toledo Jewish News||OH||Published in Toledo, Ohio. Issues since 2014 available via the name link. Archives are available to search or browse from 1938-2005 and 2013-2019 here.|
|The Jewish Tribune||OR||Published in Portland, OR. Online issues from 1911 to 1917.|
|The Pittsburgh Jewish Newspaper Project||PA||The Project is composed of The Jewish Criterion (1895-1962), The American Jewish Outlook (1934-1962), The Jewish Chronicle (1962-2010), and the Y-JCC series (1926-1975). Searchable with pdf images of pages|
|Jewish Exponent||PA||Published in Philadelphia since 1887. Use the search field on the newspaper’s home page to search for life cycle events (births, Bar/Bat Mitzvah, engagements, weddings, etc…). The range of years searched varies depending upon the life cycle event. Available online from 1887 to 1990 from select libraries with a subscription to the ProQuest database, American Jewish Newspapers.
Search the Philadelphia Jewish Exponent Obituary Database, an index of more than 63,500 obituary notices which appeared in the newspaper. Search for online obituaries published in the Jewish Exponent since January 2011 here. Search for online death notices published in the Jewish Exponent since February 2006 here.
|The Occident and American Jewish Advocate||PA||Published 1843-1869. The leading Jewish publication in the United States during this period. Also available here.|
|Rhode Island Jewish Newspapers Collection||RI||Digitized images since 1929 of The Jewish Herald, later named The Jewish Voice & Herald and Rhode Island Jewish Herald are available here.
Obituaries from these Rhode Island Jewish newspapers and other newspapers are searchable here.
|The Jewish Herald||TX||Published in Houston, 1908-1911. Search the Houston Jewish Herald-Voice Database, containing life-cycle event information transcribed from the newspaper for the period from 1908 to 2018.|
|The Jewish Monitor||TX||Published in Fort Worth, 1919-1921|
|Texas Jewish Post||TX||Published in Fort Worth, 1947-2011|
|Jewish News||VA||Published in southeastern Virginia. Online archives from 1947 to 2018.|
|The Jewish South||VA||Published in Richmond, 1893-1899. One of few publications concerning Jews in the South, it reported on events of neighbouring counties in Virginia including Norfolk, Staunton, and Petersburg.|
|The Jewish Transcript||WA||Published in Seattle, 1924-2014. Issues available online between 1924 and 1986 (some years/issues missing).|
|Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle||WI||Published in Milwaukee. Search archived life cycle events from the “Life Cycle” drop down list on the home page of the paper. Digital images of the newspaper from 1921 to 1997 are accessible with a newspapers.com subscription ($).
Search the Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle Obituary Index for the years 1921-1996.
|Historical Jewish Press||World-wide||Searchable collection of hundreds of Jewish newspapers published in over 30 countries, in multiple languages, and spanning the period from the late 18th century up to and including the 21st. The various sections of the Historical Jewish Press Project are listed here, and include:
19th Century Press Jewish Press in Poland Yiddish Press Russian Jewish Press Ladino Press Yishuv and State of Israel Press Jewish Press in Arab Lands Latin America Press Jewish Press in the USA Children’s Newspapers
The project seeks to provide representation of all the Jewish communities of the world and the newspapers which they have published. Search and browse the newspapers here. The collection can be sorted by title, language, region, country, and publication years. Notable newspapers in English include The Palestine Post, forerunner of today’s The Jerusalem Post.
|HaMagid and HaMelitz|
|Eastern Europe||Search results from the following three databases can be used in conjunction with the National Library of Israel’s Historical Jewish Press collection, which has digitized images of the Hebrew-language newspapers. HaMagid from 1856 to 1903 and HaMelitz from 1860 to 1904.
Town Index to Donor Lists in HaMagid, 1856-1900.
HaMagid Persian Famine Donation Lists, 1871-1872.
Lithuanian and Latvian Jewish donations in HaMelitz, 1893-1903.
|Price Library of Judaica||World-wide||Thirty-eight anniversary issues of 25 Jewish newspapers from around the world. The newspapers date from 1904 to 1973 and come from Argentina, France Germany, Israel, Mexico, Romania, South Africa, Switzerland and the USA.|
|Digital Library of|
Alliance Israélite Universelle
|French speaking||Digitized publications from the French-speaking Jewish communities in France, North Africa and the Middle East.|
|The Jewish Chronicle Online||UK||Current online newspaper. Access to the archives requires payment|
|AJR Journal||UK||Journal of the Association of Jewish Refugees in Great Britain. 1946-2021.|
|Belfast Jewish Gazette (1933-1934)|
Belfast Jewish Record (1954-2015)
|UK||Publications for the Belfast and Northern Irish Jewish community.|
|Historical German-Jewish Newspapers||Germany||Searchable. Over 300 newspapers and journals via the portal Compact Memory.|
|Leo Baeck Institute Library|
|World-wide||Periodical collection includes numerous German-language Jewish newspapers that were published in several countries|
|The Netherlands||Dutch website. Digitized Jewish newspapers and magazines include Ha’ischa (organ of the Jewish women’s councils in The Netherlands) (1929-1939); De Vrijdagavond (1924-1932); Nieuw Israelietisch weekblad (1865-1940); Het joodsche weekblad (1940-1943); De Heraut (1850-1855); and De Heraut (1856-1870).
|Interwar Jewish Press of|
Galicia, Volhynia and Bukovina
|South-Eastern Europe||Collection of 27 titles of Jewish newspapers, mostly in Polish, with some Yiddish and German.|
|Centralna Biblioteka Judaistyczna|
(Central Judaic Library in Poland)
|Poland||Numerous Jewish magazines and newspapers in Yiddish, Hebrew, and Polish from the collection of the Jewish Historical Institute can be found within “Czasopisma” under “Kolekcje” (Collections).|
|Jewish Telegraphic Agency||US & World||Newspaper established 1917, currently being published. Searchable archive, 1923 - onwards.|
|Australian Jewish Newspapers||Australia||180 Years of Australian Jewish newspapers are being digitized and made accessible through both the National Library of Israel (via the Historical Jewish Press) and the National Library of Australia (via Trove). The Australian Jewish newspapers currently accessible on Trove are listed here.
Death notices from the Australian Jewish News since 1999 have been indexed here. Select Australian Jewish News from the newspaper list when searching.
|South African Jewish Report||South Africa||Founded in 1998. Archived issues since 2011 are online.
|Cape Jewish Chronicle||South Africa||Established in 1984 in Cape Town, South Africa. Archived issues since 2012 are online.|
|Shanghai Jewish Chronicle (1939-1945)|
Shanghai Echo (1946-1948)
Acht Uhr Abendblatt (1939-1941)
S.Z. am Mittage der Shanghai Post (1939-1940)
|China||The Shanghai Jewish Chronicle, later the Shanghai Echo, was one of many German-language periodicals published for Jewish refugees who fled to Shanghai. Two other papers from that time are also available.|